Friday, March 20, 2020
High School vs College 15 Key Differences SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Are you about to start college soon? Are you wondering what changes to expect? How is college different from high school?When you compare high school vs college, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll find many differences, some of which are obvious, others less so. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s important to understand how high school and college are different from each other so you know what to expect and can have a smoother transition when you begin college.In this guide, we explain the 15 most important differences between high school and college and give you tips to help make this major life change a bit less intimidating. How Is College Different From High School? ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s a reason so many movies, shows, and books focus on new college students: many people see the transition from high school to college as one of the most important turning points in their life.YouÃ¢â¬â¢re no longer a kid living under your parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ roof; instead youÃ¢â¬â¢re an adult living on your own and expected to make real, important decisions about your future. YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll have a lot more freedom, but a lot will also be expected from you, both in class and out. Read on to learn specific high school vs college differences. High School vs College: 15 Key Differences Below are 15 high school vs college differences youÃ¢â¬â¢ll likely encounter once you begin college. There are pros and cons to both high school and college, but knowing what to expect will make you better prepared for this big change. #1: YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll Have More Independence The biggest change for high school vs. college is that, in college, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll have much more independence than you had in high school. Many people focus on the fact that youÃ¢â¬â¢ll be living away from your parents, and this is a part of it, but youÃ¢â¬â¢ll have independence in many other areas as well. YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll have the freedom to decide what you want to major in, which classes you want to take, when you want to schedule those classes, if you want to go out with your friends, how late you want to stay out, even what you want to eat in the dining hall. (I ate ReeseÃ¢â¬â¢s Puffs cereal every day for four years because my parents never allowed it and I was thrilled to finally be able to have it for breakfast.) #2: YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll Be Treated Like an Adult Along with your increased independence, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll also be treated like an adult in college as opposed to a child under your parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ care. In college, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll no longer need to bring your parents permission slips to sign, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll be trusted to make your own choices for what you want to study, and you can arrange meetings yourself, without Mom and Dad helping you. For many students, itÃ¢â¬â¢s exciting to finally be viewed as an adult, but it also means an increase in responsibilities. If you have a problem with or question about homework, classes, a grade you got, etc.,you are the one who will need to solve it. You canÃ¢â¬â¢t expect your parents to call the school and fix the problem for you like they may have done in high school. #3: There Will Be a Wider Variety of Classes to Choose From In high school, you didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have a lot of choice in regards to which classes you took. You could probably choose a few electives, but your schedule was mostly filled with the standard math, science, English, and social studies requirements that all students had to take. In college, even if you attend a smaller school, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll have many more options. TheyÃ¢â¬â¢ll be a wider variety of classes to choose from, and many of them will focus on more specific topics like astronomy, ancient Roman history, French literature, the geography of the United States, and more.Many college students like this increase in class options since it makes it easier for them to choose classes on topics theyÃ¢â¬â¢re really interested in. #4: Classes Will Have Different Formats and Sizes Each class you took in high school probably had about the same number of students and consisted mostly of lecturing, maybe along with some individual or group work. This isnÃ¢â¬â¢t true in college.Classes can range from two to 500 students, and their format can vary widely as well. Classes may be completely lecture-based, require hands-on lab work, or be discussion-based where you spend most of class time engaged in conversations or debates with your classmates and professor. #5: Your Schedule Will Be More Complicated In high school, school started and ended the same time every day, and your class schedule was probably the same for every day of the week.In college, things get a little trickier. Some classes meet three times a week for an hour and a half, some meet five times a week for an hour, some meet once a week for three hours, etc.This means youÃ¢â¬â¢ll likely be starting and ending class at different times during the week, and you may end up with a different class schedule for every day of the week. Some people like the variety this gives them, but itÃ¢â¬â¢s important to stay on top of your schedule so you donÃ¢â¬â¢t wind up forgetting to attend class. #6: YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll Have a New Set of Classmates One of the most jarring things for many new college students is theyÃ¢â¬â¢re no longer surrounded by classmates and friends theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve known for years. Instead, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll be in a sea of strangers (at least at first), many of whom come from different areas and backgrounds than you. Additionally, you'll likely have a different set of classmates for each of your classes. That's a lot of new faces! This means you have lots of opportunity for making all kinds of friends, but expect there to be some awkwardness and loneliness at first as everyone gets to know each other and figures out their friend groups.Additionally, since in college everyone wants to be there (at least on some level), you may find your college classmates more motivated and dedicated to doing well in school compared to some of your high school peers. #7: Classes Will Require More Critical Thinking Is college hard compared to high school? Going to college isnÃ¢â¬â¢t just like attending four more years of high school. This is a big step up in your education, and your classes will be more challenging and expect you to keep up.YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll be tested less on memorization and basic regurgitation of facts and more on critical thinking skills and being able to apply what you learned in class to other situations. You may learn a specific math equation and then be asked to apply that knowledge to more challenging types of equations, learn about different historical events and be asked to analyze how they affected future events, learn a scientific process and be asked to describe how it affects the environment, etc. #8: College Costs More ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s no way around it; college definitely costs more than high school. Tuition is thousands of dollars, and youÃ¢â¬â¢ll likely be paying for room and board as well. And those are just the main costs. College requires all sorts of smaller purchases too, like special goggles for your chemistry lab or official test taking booklets for final exams. Buying just one college textbook (often over $100) is enough to never let you take for granted all free materials you got in high school. #9: YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll Spend Less Time in Class Most full-time college students spend about 15-20 hours in class a week, which comes out to about three or four hours a day. This is probably much less time than you spent in high school classes every day which means youÃ¢â¬â¢ll have a lot more unscheduled time to spend how you think is best. #10: YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll Have More Schoolwork DonÃ¢â¬â¢t get too excited about spending less time in class; college definitely knows how to keep you busy. The general rule of thumb is that youÃ¢â¬â¢ll spend about three hours a week on schoolwork for every one hour of class youÃ¢â¬â¢re in. With a standard schedule of 15 credits, that means you can expect to spend 45 hours a week on schoolwork, about as much as a full-time job!This is often much more work than students had in high school, so you should be prepared for an adjustment. #: Attendance Will Be Up to You In high school, you had to go to class every day because if you didnÃ¢â¬â¢t, you could get in trouble for truancy or (sometimes even more frightening) your parents could find out.In college, there are no requirements for attending class, and no one is going to call your parents if you donÃ¢â¬â¢t show up.However, donÃ¢â¬â¢t make the mistake some college students do and think this means you donÃ¢â¬â¢t need to go to class. Many professors include attendance as part of your grade, and some will even fail you if you miss a certain number of classes without a valid excuse. Plus, itÃ¢â¬â¢s often very difficult to do well in a class if you never show up, and youÃ¢â¬â¢re paying a lot of money for these classes! Make sure you get the most out of them that you can. #12: YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll Have More Social Opportunities Even if you were a social butterfly in high school, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll have tons more opportunities to be social and make friends in college. There will be sports teams to join, parties to go to, clubs you can be part of, and more.Most colleges are large enough to have something for everyone, so youÃ¢â¬â¢re bound to find an activity youÃ¢â¬â¢re interested in, whether thatÃ¢â¬â¢s a recreational hockey team, the student government group, a club focused on promoting renewable energy, and more. There are also likely many more students at your college than there were at your high school, so your opportunities for making friends will multiply as well. However, you do need to make an effort to get the most out of these opportunities. Push yourself to try new things and strike up conversations with new people, and if you're feeling nervous, just remember that they're likely feeling the same way. Standard questions to ask new people you meet in college include: Where are you from? What dorm do you live in? What are you majoring in? Get ready to ask and be asked these questions a lot! #13: ItÃ¢â¬â¢ll Be Harder to Stand Out Once you start college, you wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be a big fish in a small pond anymore, and itÃ¢â¬â¢ll be harder to stand out from the crowd.While in high school you may have been the star student/athlete/singer, in college youÃ¢â¬â¢ll be surrounded by many talented classmates, many of whom were also the best at something in high school.Some students struggle with no longer automatically standing out, but there are plenty of benefits to this. First, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll be able to bond with other students who are also skilled at your talent. If you were, say, the star drama student at your high school, you may not hold the same position in college, but you can befriend all the other high school drama stars and create some awesome shows together. Additionally, some students like the anonymity being a new college student brings. If youÃ¢â¬â¢ve been labelled as a jock or theater nerd for all of high school, going to collegewhere people donÃ¢â¬â¢t know youallows you to shed or alter that identity if you wish and try new things (or try the same things with less pressure). #14: YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll Get Fewer Grades in Class In high school, you probably had daily homework assignments you had to complete and got a grade for. These, along with some larger projects, quizzes, and tests made up your final class grade. If you got a low score in one, it was usually fine since there were plenty of other chances to make up for the low grade. Once you start college, you may find that many classes have far fewer assignments, meaning youÃ¢â¬â¢ll receive fewer grades and each of those grades are worth more.Instead of regular homework assignments and quizzes, many college classes are based only on a midterm grade and a final grade. This means you need to take those exams/papers/projects very seriously because if you mess up on one of them itÃ¢â¬â¢ll be very hard to raise your class grade back to where you want it to be. #15: YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll Be Doing Lots of Reading You know those pictures of exhausted-looking students sitting next to a pile of textbooks they need to get through? ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s how many college students feel.Expect to do lots of reading in college, including textbooks, journal articles, and literature.If youÃ¢â¬â¢re majoring in a field like computer science or math you can expect less reading (and more homework), but youÃ¢â¬â¢re still guaranteed to have at least a few classes where youÃ¢â¬â¢re assigned to read a couple dozen textbook pages before the next class. YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll get to know your schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s library very well. Tips for Making the Transition From High School to College Going from high school to college can be tough no matter how excited you are to start at your new school. Below are three tips to help make the transition easier. Know There Will Be Changes YouÃ¢â¬â¢ve already taken one of the most important steps to prepare for transitioning from high school to college: youÃ¢â¬â¢re expecting and preparing for the differences.When you know that the high school to college transition will bring major changes, you'll be more prepared for anything that comes your way. Be Prepared for Some Bumps Many movies about college make it seem like new college students immediately find a group of close friends, know exactly what they want to study, and have an awesome social life. In reality, it rarely works like this.Many new college students have moments where they feel awkward, lonely, and homesick. This is completely normal; after all youÃ¢â¬â¢re making a major life change. By managing your expectations of college and not expecting to love it right away, you can better manage the transition from high school to college and not end up disappointed when it takes a little while to feel comfortable. Put Yourself Out There When you first start college, there will be a lot of changes, and itÃ¢â¬â¢ll be easy to hang out in your dorm room and text with your high school friends. However, you should resist this urge. College is probably the best time youÃ¢â¬â¢ll ever have to meet new people and try new things, so you should take full advantage. Keep your dorm room door open to meet your neighbors. Strike up a conversation with your chemistry lab partner. Join a club or sport youÃ¢â¬â¢ve never tried before.Not only will this make the transition from high school to college easier since youÃ¢â¬â¢ll be meeting more people, you may discover a new friend or hobby. What's Next? Not sure which college you want to go to? Check out our guide on choosing the right college so you can make the best decision. Stressing over college applications? We're here to help! Our step-by-step guide breaks down the complete college application process from start to finish. Worried about choosing a major on your college applications? Learn how to navigate the process and make an informed decision. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points?We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now:
Tuesday, March 3, 2020
1927 - 1928 Academy Awards The very first Academy Awards ceremony was held on May 16, 1929 at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel. More of a fancy dinner than the huge, staged ceremony of today, it was the beginning of a grand tradition. The Very First Academy Awards Soon after the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences was founded in 1927, a committee of seven members was given the task of creating an Academy Awards presentation. Though the idea was shelved for nearly a year due to other pressing Academy issues, the plans for an awards ceremony presented by the Awards committee were accepted in May 1928. It was decided that all films released from August 1, 1927 through July 31, 1928 would be eligible for the first Academy Awards. The Winners Were Not a Surprise The first Academy Awards ceremony was held on May 16, 1929. It was a quiet affair compared to the glamor and glitz that accompany the ceremonies of today. Since the winners were announced to the press on Monday, February 18, 1929 - three months early - the 250 people who attended the black-tie banquet in the Blossom Room of the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel werent anxious for the results to be announced. After a dinner of Filet of Sole Saute au Buerre and Half Broiled Chicken on Toast, Douglas Fairbanks, the president of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, stood up and gave a speech. Then, with the help of William C. deMille, he called the winners up to the head table and handed them their awards. The First Statuettes The statuettes that were presented to the first Academy Awards winners were nearly identical to those handed out today. Sculpted by George Stanley, The Academy Award of Merit (an Oscars official name) was a knight, made of solid bronze, holding a sword and standing upon a reel of film. The First Academy Award Winner Wasnt There! The very first person to receive an Academy Award didnt attend the first Academy Awards ceremony. Emil Jannings, the winner for best actor, had decided to go back to his home in Germany before the ceremony. Before he left for his trip, Jannings was handed the very first Academy Award. The 1927-1928 Academy Award Winners Picture (Production): WingsPicture (Unique and Artistic Production): Sunrise: A Song of Two HumansActor: Emil Jannings (The Last Command; The Way of All Flesh)Actress: Janet Gaynor (Seventh Heaven; Street Angel; Sunrise)Director: Frank Borzage (Seventh Heaven) / Lewis Milestone (Two Arabian Knights)Adapted Screenplay: Benjamin Glazer (Seventh Heaven)Original Story: Ben Hecht (Underworld)Cinematography: SunriseInterior Decoration: The Dove / The Tempest
Sunday, February 16, 2020
Ionic and covalent Bonding - Essay Example The element that loses electrons forms cations while the element that gains electrons forms anions and the opposite charges form the ions to constitute the bonding (Saha 2010, p. 4). Covalent bonding however defines attractive forces between atoms through sharing of electrons. Each atom in the bond is unstable but is requires high energy to either gain or lose electrons and therefore shares electrons with a nearby atom. Covalent bonding may occur between atoms of the same element or atoms of different elements. The shared electrons forms part of the energy levels of both of the atoms and the attraction to each of the atomÃ¢â¬â¢s nuclei forms the bonding (Khanna, Verma and Kapila n.d., p. 230). Ionic bonding works through attraction between the formed ions. The bond between sodium and chlorine to form sodium chloride illustrates this. Sodium atoms lose electrons from their outer most energy levels and therefore form ions with positive charges, sodium ions. Chlorine atoms gain the lost electrons into their outer most energy levels to form chloride ions with negative charges. The sodium and chloride ions then attract each other to form sodium chloride compound under ionic bond. The bond between chlorine atoms in a chlorine molecule however illustrates covalent bonding. Since the two atoms have high and equal affinity for an electron, they donate an electron each, that they share in the outer most energy level to attain stability (Saha 2010, p. 4; Khanna, Verma and Kapila n.d., p. 230). The main similarity between covalent and ionic bonding is the resultant bond that is created between atoms. Both ionic and covalent bonds also identify transfer of electrons across atoms towards formation of bonds (Vandermeer 2011, p. 157). Despite the similarities between the two types of bonds, they have many differences. The first difference is in the transfer of electrons in the
Sunday, February 2, 2020
Knowledge Worker Paper-Sheila - Essay Example ry assets of organizations in recent decades, more so, because of the highly competitive nature of the business environment which constantly pushes businesses to engage in the development of strategies, tools and techniques to maximize efficiency. This paper addresses the key questions regarding the concept of knowledge workers and traces their development from a historical context. Moreover, the analysis also examines the functions of knowledge workers as a part of the wider organizational framework through the application of a comparison matrix. For the purposes of understanding why organizational needs and requirements have been shaped in such a manner where the need to recruit knowledge workers has become so indispensible, it is important to identify a simultaneous rise in the significance of knowledge creation and accumulation in the organization. In current circumstances where competitive standings have prompted organizations to secure technologies and techniques to contribute towards the enhancement of their operations, the acquisition of knowledge remains a top priority. As noted by Lewis (2004), organizational needs to advance the establishment of knowledge systems can be identified in the development of models and frameworks which support this need. For example, models such as transactive memory systems or TMS contribute towards the knowledge worker spectrum and represent the progress which has been achieved in this regard from the starting point. Additionally, the realm of knowledge acquisition and creation has thus far developed into a system whereby individuals do not essentially comprise of the system but in fact, Ã¢â¬Ëknowledge worker teamsÃ¢â¬â¢ are being formed to cope with the rising demand for knowledge acquisition and creation across firms. Moreover, it also important to identify how the development of the knowledge worker concept has began to integrate itself within the scope of human resource practices. This aspect coincides with the
Saturday, January 25, 2020
The Kingdom Of The Hittites History Essay Two Archaeologist who were among the first ones to take an interest in the Hittites were the French adventurer-explorer called Charles Texier (1834), and British scholar called Archibald Henry Sayce (1876), who gave lectures to the Society of Biblical Archaeology about a group of people referred to in the Bible as the Hittites. Sayce puts forward a bold new theory-that the Hittites, far from being an insignificant Canaanite tribe, were in fact the masters of a great and widespread empire extending throughout the Near East (Bryce, 2002, p2). The German archaeologist Hugo Winckler began excavating the site, examining over 1000 clay tablets which had been discovered. They were inscribed in the cuneiform script; the Hittites used cuneiform script on their writing. Hieroglyph form was also used and it was intended for ordinary people so that they would understand the contents (Sansal, 2010). Winckler was able to read a number of these tablets, since they are in the language called Akkadia n, the international language of diplomacy in the second millennium BC. He discovered the Akkadian version of a treaty which the pharaoh Ramesses II drew up with Hattusili, king of the Hittites, in the twenty-first year of his reign. This, combined with other evidence, made it clear that the site under excavation is the Hittite capital, later to be identified as Hattusa (Bryce, 2002, p2). Today a lot of work is taking place at these sites on the supervision of German archaeologist. Hittites chose to settle in Anatolia due to the rich source of timber and agricultural products of all kind, and more importantly an abundance of the mineral wealth which with the advance of the civilization became increasingly necessary. The mountains of Anatolia are rich in metal-deposits (MacQueen, 1986. P13-15) Chronology remains a big problem when studying this region. Many of the dates established for the area are ultimately dependent on Egyptian sources.The Hittite history is divided into 3 phases Old Kingdom 1680-1500, Middle Kingdom 1500-1430, Empire 1430-1200. Total collapse around 1180 BC. (Matthews, 2010) A Hittite king was constantly inundated with decisions, as he was not only the supreme ruler, but also a judicial authority, high priest, and a military commander. All important matters in these fields had to be reported to the king. He had a large number of aristocrats and personages who possessed a significant amount of power and were assigned with vital roles in the kingdom. These men were always blood relatives of the king (Bryce, 2002, p16). Hattusili I, 1650-1620 BC was the first Hittite king to expand into north Syria, including Aleppo and Alalakh. This demonstrates the early value of access to sea and trade for Hittites as Hattusa is located rather far from the sea (Matthews, 2010). Hittite kings adopted Hatti names and were greatly inspired by Hatti civilization in their art, religion, culture and mythology (Sansal, 2010) The army consisted of two main arms, infantry and chariots. The most important posts both in government and the army were given to the kings blood relatives, eldest sons and brothers. The infantry had a small core of permanent troops who acted as the kings personal bodyguard and were responsible for frontier-patrols and the crushing of rebellions (Macqueen, 1986. P56). Women also played an important part in the Hittites state. Queen Pudupepe, wife of Hattusili III, and the last queen of Suppiluliumas I were present in office until their husbands deaths and have been mentioned and portrayed in a number of clay tablets discovered (Gurney, 1990. P54). About 200 Hittite laws which were inscribed on two tablets, enclose the laws of this great empire. These include punishments for agricultural defence, adultery, theft, murder, defiance in case of slaves and many other rules and punishments (Sansal, 2010). A large number of tablets have been discovered baring these laws from later periods which indicate that the same laws were kept by later kings. At the lowest level of society were slaves. A person could become a slave through debts, through indentured servitude, as punishment of a crime, or through warfare (Collin, 2007. 117). An owner appears to ave had virtually unlimited power in his treatment of his slaves Bryce, 2002. p52). The art of fortification is an ancient one in Anatolia. A good example can be seen at the settlements in Hacilar II (c. 5400) which has an independent wall of mud brick between 1.5 and 3 m thick and provided with small towers which enabled the defenders to fire along the face of the wall. The slightly later (c. 5250) wall of Hacilar I are even bigger, and is built in a series of steps to give a clear field for covering-fire in front of it ( Macqueen, 1986. P64). Many building had mud-brick on stone foundations, with upper storey, and some had storage for grains (Matthews, 2010) Excavations show that streets had a strong tendency to be straight, and were usually well finished with a surface of coarse gravel. In an area where almost every site was on sloping ground, systems of terracing were constantly necessary, many streets had large drainage-channels, running down the middle and connected to lesser channels or clay pipes which carried dirty water into them from the houses on either side (Macqueen, 1986. P70) Agriculture played an important role in the economy of the Hittites. Some of the main crops included emmer-wheat and barley; but peas, beans, onions, flax, figs, olives, . Cattle, pigs, goats, sheep, horses, donkeys, dogs and were kept, and bees too were an important item (honey was important in diet). Daily diet consisted mainly of different sorts, of bread and cakes, milk, cheese, porridge or gruel, and meat and vegetable stews (Bryce, 2002, p74). There is evidence for the presence of doctors, builders, carpenters, goldsmiths, coppersmiths, potters, fishermen, and watchmen, although in many cases full-time professionals were employed only by the palace and temples (Macqueen, 1986. P97). Sometimes there is evidence for what can only be described as industrial areas, as trade played an important role in the economy and merchants from overseas visited the city often. These buildings can be especially in connection with metal-working, excavations show that these buildings could have fu nctioned as a shop in some areas of the town. Many seals have been discovered, but the signet-ring, like the cylinder-seal, was the exception, in the Hittite world. Newly- found seal-impressions which describe kuruntas as a Great King suggest that he was for a time able to seize power in the capital and will thus have to be added to the list of the Hittite monarchs (Macqueen, 1986, p9, p101). Pottery of Hittite type was in use throughout central Anatolia and in many areas affected by Hittite political or military influence. Perhaps the most attractive c type of Hittite pottery is the vessel in the form of an animal (Gurney, 1990. p163-165). Religion played an extremely important role among the Hittites, and it was involved mainly with serving the gods which in most cases was the weather gods Collin, 2007, p173-174). The kings prayed and made offerings to gods regularly at the temples dedicated to them. The temple was not only the building in which the great festivals took place, but also the home of the god throughout the year; inside it, he had his dining-room and his bedroom, and he had at his command a host of temple-servants attend to his every need (Bryce, 2002, p153). King Mursili II is best known among all the Hittite kings for his duty to gods and religion. This dedication to the gods and the vast number of temples built, was the main reason that Hattusa remained a capital throughout the years even though it was not the most ideal place to have as the centre of an empire mainly due to its extreme climate changes, the impossibility of the relocation of the gods temples made Hattusa the unchangeable capital. Most of the surviving evidence of temples relates to the official state-cult, little is known of local religious buildings, but inventories of their contents, preserved at the capital, tell us something of their furnishings and their festivals; the principal object in a shrine was a cult-image of normal size, usually a weapon, an animal or a huwasi-stone, an upright Stella set on a carved base (Macqueen, 1986, p111). Only towards the end of the Imperial period were these objects beginning to be replaced by anthropomorphic images, usually the gift of the king. Small buildings used for cult purposes also existed in Hattusas itself, and several have recently been excavated in the southern part of the city. Hittite art is basically naturalistic, in the sense that it portrays human beings, animals and occasionally objects. About three-quarters of a mile north-east of Bogazkoy lies Yazilikaya the most impressive of all Hittites religious structures. One of the gods depicted here is Teshub (Sansal, 2010). Here at a point where a spring of fresh water once flowed, is an outcrop of rock which forms two natural Chambers of different sizes; the problems with interpreting the sculptures of Yazihkaya in terms of find ritual and belief have certainly not all been solved (Macqueen, 1986, P 123-127). It has been pointed out by the excavators that the temple buildings, unlike those of the capital, were weakly constructed, and cannot have supported an upper storey; this suggests that they were not in daily use, but were reserved for some special function, perhaps an annual event (Bittel, 1970. P107-8) Cremation was widespread in central Anatolia; from textual resources it is known to be the funerary custom of the Hittite Kings. The ordinary people of Hattusa, however, were either buried or cremated (Bryce, 2002. P176-7). At Bogazkoy, for instance, bodies were often buried in or near the houses. Burial gifts were few and poor in quality and no social distinction can be made in terms of types or location of burial (Macqueen, 1986. P133) Hattusa is located at the southern end of the Budakozii Valley adjacent to the stream of the same name, which has cut a large cleft into the rocks to form a natural citadel that was settled already at the end of the Early Bronze Age; easily defensible, the citadel commanded a view of the entire Late Bronze Age city called Buyilkkale today (Bryce, 2002. P33). Here was located the palace, which was the residence of the king, his family, and their retinue, and, adjacent to it, the administrative buildings, including an extensive library and chancellery; the oldest part of the city is located in the Lower City to the north, in the area around and including the Great Temple (Bryce, 2002. P33). In this temple, priests saw to the needs of the Storm-God and Sun-Goddess, the divine couple who ruled the Hittite pantheon. Three monumental gates are located in the southern part of the city. Each of the three gates is decorated with elaborate sculpture that helps to define their separate uses. From an artificial embankment at the highest and southernmost point of the city, known as Yerkapi, two carved sphinxes once looked down protectively upon the temple quarter; the gate was accessible from the outside only by two steep, narrow staircases and so is unlikely to have been a regular point of entrance to the city. Its narrow open gateway has a shrine-like feel, and it may have served primarily as the stage for religious celebrations (Collin, 2007. P35). A large tablet uniquely made of bronze found near the Sphinx Gate contains the text of a treaty between Tudhaliyas IV and his cousin Kuruntas king of Tarhuntassa, a son of Muwatallis, and gives important geographical information on south and south-west Anatolia (Macqueen, 1986. P8-9). The Lion Gate located near Temple 3, to the southwest, so-called because of the two massive lions in stone designed to impress those entering the city, probably served as the citys formal entrance for dignitaries and other important visitors (Collin, 2007, p35). A bronze sword of Aegean type, found outside the Lion Gate and inscribed with a dedication by Great king Tudhaliyas when he shattered the Assuwa-country, is important confirmation of the Assuwa campaign of Tudhaliyas I and of early Hittite contact with the west and the Aegean coast (Macqueen, 1986. P8-9). The Kings Gate with a deity carved in high relief on it, is believed to have been used primarily for special occasions, due to its very close distance from Temple 5. Professor Neve notes that Temple 5 with an area of 3,000 m is the biggest sacred building in the upper city (Bryce, 2002. P242-3). To the south-east of the South Citadel In Hattusa, a large sacred pool has been revealed, some 92m by 65m in area, supplied by an aqueduct from the north of the kings Gate. At the western end of this po ol is a large embankment, 100 m long and 30 m wide, under which are two barrel-vaulted chambers. One of those, built over an older water-channel, is decorated with the relief of a king and an inscription of suppiluliumas II which describes it as a sacred path to the underworld (Macqueen, 1986. P8-9). These gates were also there to give protective aid of supernatural powers, by being designed to keep evil influences and evil men at bay. Excavations show that in the ridge called Bulyukkaya, the Hittites built an extensive granary comprising rectangular cellars dug into the earth( Collin, 2007. P16), with a capacity to store some four to six thousand tons of grain totals, this indicated that the city prepared for siege and also for bad harvest years (Matthews, 2010). New excavations in the western part of the Upper City, dominated by Sarikale, have revealed that the area was settled already in the sixteenth century. The square structures dating to this period are thought to have been barracks for military troops, thus clearing up the mystery of where Hattusas defenders resided (Collin, 2007). There is focus on the new excavations (since 2001) in the western part of the Upper City in the valley west of the rock of Sarikale, which may provide evidence of the elusive residential quarter. One major challenge remaining for excavators is to find a royal tomb (Collin, 2007. P16). In the south-west the Shipwreck near Uluburun, east of Kas, has provided a rich cargo which includes copper, tin, gold, glass, ivory, ebony, amber, ostrich-egg shell, terebinth resin, pellets or purple murex dye, a scarab of Nefertiti, and a wooden folding writing tablet, as well as a wide assortment of jewellery, weapons, tools, weights and other equipment; the wreck vastly increases our understanding of international sea-trade and also of shipbuilding techniques c. 1300 BC. (Macqueen, 1986) Conclusions: The Hittite empire collapsed around 1180 BC, at end of the late Bronze Age. Early in the twelfth century, the royal capital Hattusa was destroyed by fire, and with its destruction the Anatolian kingdom of the Hittite came to an abrupt end. This occurred within the situation of the widespread upheavals linked with the fall down of many Bronze Age kingdoms throughout the Near East and mainland Greece (Bryce, 2002. P9) . This empire had a fragile political unit, perhaps due to the location of its capital and the great mixture of people living within it, which made union rather more difficult and sensitive. Harvests were failing, and grain had to be imported from as far afield as Egypt to ward off famine, which caused the empire to be on the edge. Hittites disappeared from central Anatolia but survived as small Iron Age kingdoms in the south east of Turkey and northern Syria; these are the peoples referred to in the Bible, whom we call Neo-Hittites (Matthews, 2010). While Hittitology con tinues to be a dynamic and evolving field of study, it is nevertheless still a relatively young and relatively small field, and there is still much to learn about its people and history.
Friday, January 17, 2020
Assignment 1Carrie Mowatt Introduction PTSD is classified as a severe anxiety disorder which is likely to develop when a person is exposed to one or more traumatic events. This study consists of surveys which measure the levels of posttraumatic stress and depressive symptoms in soldiers returning from active duty in both Iraq and Afghanistan. The research will attempt to show soldiers returning from an extended tour of duty are at high risk for developing these mental issues. As discussed in class, stress is any challenge to the system and has an effect on one's emotions as well as their physical well being. Measuring the effects of war on a soldier is sure to expose signs of stress. If a soldier should show signs of posttraumatic stress they could most likely experience things such as anxiety, aggression, with drawl and impaired cognitive performance which would effect their everyday lives and due harm to their physical wellbeing. Hypothesis The purpose of this study was to identify soldiers who were most at risk of experiencing posttraumatic stress and depressive symptoms after serving time in a combat zone. Their goal was to gather information so they may develop intervention programs which would be beneficial in assisting troops who have displayed signs of posttraumatic stress and or depressive symptoms. Participants The participants in this study consisted of 4,089 United States soldiers returning from active duty in Iraq and or Afghanistan. Over half of those who participated were white males. The remainder of the subjects were Black, Hispanic, Pacific Islander, Asian, Native American, Biracial or other. Only a few surveyed were female. Methods Participants were given surveys in a classroom setting. The information gathered consisted of the soldiers age, gender, ethnicity, marital status, military rank, time served and number of children living at home. In order to measure the levels of posttraumatic and depressive symptoms, participants were asked a series of questions such as, if they had seen any counselor since returning including counselors for personal problems. Soldiers were asked to rate their feelings when exposed to certain situations, such as, whether they felt isolated or nervous around other people, or if they experienced bad dreams involving the horrible things which they endured while serving their time in either Iraq or Afghanistan. They also answered questions which involved rating their satisfaction with life. Results After the research was calculated it was determined that almost half of the participants reported symptoms of posttraumatic stress, depressive symptoms or both. Soldiers returning from Iraq reported higher levels of posttraumatic stress than those returning from Afghanistan and were more likley to seek counseling. However, soldiers returning from Iraq were more satisfied with life than those returning from Afghanistan. It was shown in soldiers returning from both Iraq and Afghanistan that being separated or divorced was related to higher levels of posttraumatic stress and depressive symptoms. Soldier who were single or separated were more likely to seek counseling than soldiers who were married. Soldiers of a higher ranking were less likely to report symptoms. Those who had counseling prior to redeployment were more likely to report symptoms. Problems One problem with this study would be that the soldiers involved volunteered to participate in this research. I believe it would have been better to test soldiers at random therefore you would possibly have a much different outcome if the soldiers tested were not already willing to offer up this personal information. Or by handpicking the participants the researchers would have a more controlled experiment. I see the ratio of white males to ethnic males in this study to be a problem also. More than half of the soldiers in this study were white males. They should include a higher number of men from other ethnic groups or do a separate study on each ethnic group of soldiers in order to have a more accurate conclusion which could be referenced by the appropriate group. A clear issue to me is the almost invisible female presence in this study and that only six percent of soldiers involved were women. It is obvious the researchers should either include more women or make this study specifically male oriented. Lastly, the lack of knowledge concerning the lives of the soldiers before they were deployed threatens the results of this study. Not knowing what their exact mental state was before being exposed to highly stressful situations makes it hard to determine if the results are accurate. As for trying to determine a solution for this, it is difficult to say what could be done to measure this. Conclusion After reading this article I would conclude that soldiers returning from war are highly likely to show signs of posttraumatic stress and or depressive symptoms. The research showed that soldiers who weren't married were more likely to report depressive symptoms. I am not sure if this means they are more depressed or if it is just that married soldiers are less likely to report the depression. It could be that married men choose not to come forward and admit symptoms in order to appear strong and continuously brave to their family. The results could also mean having a family and a strong social support system could help aid the soldiers. I feel there were many faults in this study and it is mainly directed towards soldiers who are male, white and married. Also, the strictly volunteer basis of this study makes it hard to determine acurately how many soldiers actualy suffer from PTSD or are likely to show symptoms after returning from war. Reference Page Lapierre, C. B, Schwegler, A. F, and LaBave, B. J (2007). Posttraumatic Stress and Depression Symptoms in Soldiers Returning from Combat Operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 20, 933-943.
Thursday, January 9, 2020
Julius Caesar Julius Caesar was said to be the greatest man in the Roman world. This man whos name alone commands power, success and respect. Born in 102 B.C., Gaius Julius Caesar. His aunt had married as a youth of seventeen to the daughter of Cinna, another leader of the fraction that was opposed to the aristocratic party under Sulla, Marius, great rival. A year or two later, when Sulla had become supreme in the state, the young man was ordered to put away his wife. He refused, and his life was saved only through the intercession of powerful friends in Rome. But though he had been reprieved, Ceasar was far from safe, and for a time he skulled in the mountains until he managed to get acrss the sea to Asia Minor, where he served in theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Then in 68 B.C. he got his first official appointment under Government, as a quaestor, which secured him a seat in the Senate, and in 63 B.C. he appointed Pontifex maximus, a position of great dignity and importance in the religion esta blishment of the Roman State. He was onthe way up, and his rise was furthered by successful administration of a province in Spain. So capable did he prove that in 60 B.C. he was chosen by Rome, to form with him and crassus what is called the 1st Triumvirate. To strengthen the union between himself and Pompey, Caesar gave Pompey his daughter Julia in marriage. Then after a year as Consul, Caesar applied for, and was granted, the proconculship of Gual and Illyricum, the Roman dominion that extended from what is now the south of France to the Adriatic. His enemies and he had plenty were glad to see him leave Rome, and they no dought thought that Gual would prove the grave of his reputation. After all, he had up to now shown no special military gifts. But Casear knew what he was doing. He realized that the path to power in the Roman State lay through military victory, and he believed, as firmly as he believed in anything, in his star. In a series of campaigns he extended Roman dominion to the Atlantic and what a thousand years later was to be known as the English Channel. Years after year his dispatched to the Government in Rome told ever large conquests, of ever greaterShow MoreRelatedThe Julius Caesar671 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages Julius Caesar is the one of the famous Roman generals. Many may recognize this name from the great works of Shakespeare. Before the great works of Shakespeare, Julius Caesar was famous in his Roman city which. Julius Caesar was a dictator that turned the Roman republic to the Roman Empire. 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